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2012/4/7 上午 11:07:00
CMS Sports Supportive Wears

護具&牽引機01    

運動護具解析/林書豪穿的護具 功能大解密
【聯合報╱本報記者張嘉芳】

          

可保護關節肌肉,預防運動傷害,身體疼痛一定要穿,古代束腹、西方馬甲,皆為廣義護具。

支持、固定與保護

林口長庚醫院復健科主任周適偉表示,護具主要作用為「支持、固定與保護」,它除了可提供暫時性的輔助身體或受損組織功能,亦能預防發生運動傷害。

國泰醫院復健科物理治療師簡文仁指出,護具發展的歷史已久,如中國古代的束腹或西方的馬甲束腰,皆是廣義護具。勞動年代、機器未發明前,無論日常生活中提拿重物,或下田耕作等粗活,都必須用到腰部力量,因此逐漸發展護具用品。

護具主要用來保護關節、韌帶、肌腱、骨頭與肌肉,其作用不外乎提供保護支持、分散受力、避免外力直接作用、限制關節或組織活動、幫助組織修復等。

常見護具3大類

書田診所物理治療技術組組長蔡佩玲指出,常見的護具分三類,第一,保護關節與韌帶,如護膝、護腕、臏骨帶等;第二,直接在肌肉上加壓以保護肌腱,如護肘、大小腿的護套等;第三,運動員常用的白貼或肌內效貼紮,能提供關節及肌肉支撐作用。

不過,肌腱與韌帶如何區別?蔡佩玲表示,肌腱連接肌肉與骨頭,它是肌肉結構的一部分,具有彈性,肌肉收縮時會牽拉肌腱造成形變,俗稱為「筋」,如雞腿肉常見一條白色的筋,就是肌腱;韌帶主要連接兩根骨頭,它是跨關節的,但有時會在關節內,如膝蓋的十字韌帶,不過,韌帶沒有主動收縮的能力,一旦過度用力拉扯,可能造成形變而無法恢復原狀。

傷勢嚴重 用硬式材質

台北醫學大學附設醫院復健科主治醫師賴建宏指出,護具材質主要區分為硬式、半硬式及純軟式三種;通常膝蓋嚴重受損、骨折或韌帶斷裂等,須使用硬式護具以固定患部;半硬式護具的整體結構是軟的,但部分位置可能會以鐵條或矽膠固定,一般多是有受傷、但傷勢不嚴重者使用,如肌腱部分裂傷;純軟式相較於硬式及半硬式,擁有較佳的靈活度,使用後依舊能活動自如。

為避免身體活動、護具鬆脫,無法發揮固定、限制用力效果,簡文仁表示,護膝不只包覆關節而已,通常還會往膝蓋關節的上下兩側延伸,也就是會連接部分的大腿及小腿肚;至於護肘主要會在肌肉上直接加壓,讓肌肉較容易使力,同時還可分散韌帶及肌肉的受力,避免外力全作用在同一組織。

林書豪穿戴護具在球場上奔馳,是否意味腿受傷?蔡佩玲說,護具可預防運動傷害,不見得受傷後才穿,不過,如果身體有疼痛情形者,一定要用護具,尤其運動過程中應全程使用。

林書豪已曝光的護具,包括臏骨帶、小腿護套及大腿護膝等。蔡佩玲解讀,臏骨帶主要用來固定臏骨,僅直接在臏骨兩側加壓,或透過加強織法及厚墊方式,能避免外力直接衝撞,也可預防臏骨外翻;另方面臏骨帶的體積小,不會影響身體活動,兼具限制少及靈活度佳等優點。至於林書豪每場必穿的緊身小腿套,主要目的是對肌肉直接加壓,不僅讓肌肉用力更有效率,亦可預防瞬間用力跑跳導致肌肉拉傷,避免腿抽筋。

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